What’s in a Picture?

This week a friend shared an article with me about university marketing. It told the story from 2000 when the University of Wisconsin wanted to portray itself as racially diverse in its recruiting material. Somebody had the bright idea that Photoshop would help them out. So the front cover of the 2001-02 application booklet features a scene from a football game with the photoshopped head of a African-American student who never attended a football game!

This illustrates the difficulty institutions such as colleges and churches have when portraying themselves. Unless a church is targeting a particular demographic sector such as young professionals, or a specific immigrant community, churches want to portray themselves as welcoming to everyone. As a consequence our websites and promotional material often emphasises diversity. However, these pictures don’t always tell the truth.

The difficult question to answer is “Should we portray the church accurately, or aspirationally?” How does a 98% white church communicate that black and Hispanic members are welcome? Does a picture of a room full of white faces communicate that message? But if a church posts a stock photo of great racial and generational diversity that’s not a current reality will guests feel deceived when they walk in the door?

Did we miss anyone?

Look at this picture I found in some search results for “church diversity”. It’s obviously staged, but they’ve managed to include quite a few demographic groups: Children, Men, (mostly) Women, African-Americans, 50+, and they’re all so happy!!

One suggestion I like is that if congregational is more aspirational than real, “Start making it real!” Obviously churches can’t drag ethnic diversity in off the street, but they can develop an attitude of diversity by deliberately including diversity in everything we do. If we begin with intentionally including generational and gender diversity on committees and ministry teams, we’ll develop an attitude toward inclusiveness that will prove invaluable when connecting with those of other ethnic backgrounds. Don’t let pictures be the only expression of the church’s aspirations for diversity.

This is a topic I’m sure we’ll explore further in later posts. Churches that are racially integrated really should get that message out. Remember, 93% of churches are not! But what’s the best way of letting our communities know who we are?

In the meantime, I’d love to hear your experiences. Do you think the picture above is positive or negative? You might also like to read these related articles:

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On Earth As In Heaven

This article was originally posted on the website www.GodMeetsBall.com in May 2013. Since football has become such a big part of the Christmas season in the US I thought it would be appropriate to share these thoughts here. I hope all my readers have a wonderful Christmas with those you love.

I remember the iconic picture on the news and in Australian newspapers 20 years ago. St. Kilda’s Nicky Winmar raising his guernsey in defiance after enduring an afternoon of racial abuse from the fans outside the fence. In 1993 it set off shock waves around the country. The profile of the “aboriginal issue” instantly grew on the public’s consciousness, not only in terms of national political policies, but in respect of individuals examining our own actions for racism. (Click HERE for a good short reflection on this event.) The fact that there’s still much work ahead is demonstrated in the abuse Adam Goodes received during a match this weekend from a 13 year old girl. (Read his reaction HERE.)

This might seem strange to many people today, but I graduated high school the year before and I don’t remember ever having a conversation about racism and the hurt it causes. There may have been other events that also placed racism on the public consciousness, but for young white males who admired Winmar as a superbly skilled football player, this image made an impact.

In the USA Jackie Robinson is honoured as the first black player in Major League Baseball in 1947. Just as the AFL now has an indigenous round each year, MLB also celebrates Jackie Robinson Day annually.

Sports have always had a close connection to race relations. Sometimes sports leagues, players and fans have disgraced themselves, but sports have also made some important contributions in race relations. Sometimes these improvements have come through official actions and at other times by unofficial events.

For many, Tiger Woods has become the face of a new generation with a bi-racial heritage and a drive to allow his talent to transcend racial issues. Although not the first black golfer on the PGA Tour, Tiger is certainly the most well-known and today the only African-American playing on the Tour. This past week Sergio Garcia found himself in hot water after making a “joke” about Tiger and fried chicken. Again demonstrating the work still to be done. This interesting article contained this description of Tiger,

It’s not Tiger’s way to bring attention to any aspect of his racial heritage. His aim is to transcend race through excellence as a professional golfer. He reaches for a higher plateau that is post-racial in a way that not even President Barack Obama could ever attain as a self-identified African-American.

One of the cruel ironies of Tiger’s hope for racial transcendence in a sport played predominantly by whites is that he has been both a symbol of racial harmony and a polarizing force along racial lines.

Apart from the statements made on the field, sports provide a unifying rallying cry for people from all backgrounds. Whether listening to a radio in the poorest hovel, or sipping wine in a corporate box, people connect by supporting the same team.

When I worked as a college minister in Melbourne, Australia, we had a large group of international students attending our church. I encouraged them to pick a football team, any team, and even if they weren’t interested at all, keep track of the team’s season from a distance. This would help them fit in with the local people they met and serve as a great conversation filler. Everyone has a favourite team. Even if your team is different to mine, at least an interest in the sport provides a commonality.

So if sports can unify fans across racial, educational and financial divides. And if sports can make strong statements opposing racism that impact society as a whole. The church has a lot of work to do to match the camaraderie of sports teams.

  • How do we welcome people different from ourselves?
  • Are our friends mostly like us, or do they reflect our community?
  • Shouldn’t the church be ahead of the local sports team, which basically are businesses, in acting as instruments of Godly social change?

Even today, many church growth consultants promote the idea that homogenous churches will grow more quickly than integrated, diverse congregations. I know churches that insist that they need to be racially black, or white or Chinese, or Latino to help them serve that particular ethnic community.

These might be valid reasonings. Even if they are, they shouldn’t apply to as many churches as they do. According to a 1999 survey (cited in One Body, One Spirit, George Yancey), only 8% of all US churches are multiracial. (I suspect this would be much higher in urban & suburban Australia, but I haven’t found any data.)

In Matthew 6:10 Jesus prays, “May your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” What is God’s will for race relations and the church? Let’s answer that by looking at heaven. Revelation 7:9 describes “a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people, and language standing before the throne an in front of the lamb” praising God. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if that described our churches, “on earth as it is in heaven”?

Multiracial Churches Attract Interracial Families

God has blessed our church over the past few years as we regularly have newcomers attend our worship services. We place a lot of emphasis on hospitality toward guests and when someone attends several times I try to sit schedule a coffee with them as an opportunity to get to know each other. During these conversations one of the questions I ask is, “What do you like about our church?”

This past week I had coffee with a new guest and she volunteered that although she was white her boyfriend was African-American. She told me that she had invited him many times to attend her previous congregation but he had no interest in being the only person with black skin in a large room. She went on to say that she is hopeful he will attend church with her now that she has found a congregation in which neither of them will stand out.

Earlier this year I met with another couple (African-American & Jamaican) who said they really liked our church because it reflected their broader experience in society. They wanted their children to grow up playing with children of other races. They also wanted their children to grow up with Christians of other races.

This is a growing trend.

At this point in our congregation’s life our leadership team is glaringly white. We only have one black deacon. But we do have an elder in an interracial marriage and an international minister [me] married to an American. While not a huge percentage, 10-15% of our married couples have interracial marriages.  Finding a church that not only accepts them, but supports their marriage and families is important to these couples.

This article provides some keen insight into the challenges biracial families face. If you take the time to read it, you’ll quickly see the importance for churches to provide safe places for these diverse families.

I’m not going to pretend that I’ve done a lot of reading or research on interracial marriages, but I did stumble across a USA Today article highlighting the growth in interracial marriages. According to the study it was reporting on, “In 2010, 15% of couples married outside their race or ethnicity.” In 1980 just 3.2% of all marriages in the US were interracial. Thirty years later the number has more than doubled to 8.4%.

How does this trend impact churches?

One area of impact will be classes related to marriage or parenting. This is more than newlywed couples discussing whether their families of origin drank full cream or skim milk. Interracial couples and parents need to discuss which elements of their ethnicity they will integrate into their married lives and pass on to their children.

  • Which holidays will your family celebrate?
  • Are there particular foods which posses a significance to you beyond taste?
  • How will you help your children settle upon their unique identity? (In the first article above the author describes herself as “a biracial, self-identifying, culturally & ethnically black American woman.”)
  • In your marriage, are you free to ask questions related to race? Will you accommodate each others learning?
  • If the married couple have different native languages, what languages do you want your children to learn? How will you teach them?

Communication about differences is super important for all couples, but interracial couples do face some distinct issues that require special attention. Multiracial churches will do their communities a favour by developing awareness and supporting the challenges interracial families face.

Mandela: Reconciliation & Forgiveness

Rod Cullingworth is a white South African. After studying for ministry in the US he and his family returned to Cape Town, South Africa where they have planted several house churches. He shares here his impressions of the recently deceased Nelson Mandela. Thank-you Rod for sharing your experiences. [The name Madiba is Mandela’s African clan name.]

Living in South Africa has provided useful close-up experience of the Madiba phenomenon, providing both the observational aspect and the ‘feel’ of the situation, gained only by proximity.

I was raised in an anti-nonwhite environment, but had enough contrary influences to provide an alternate view. Even my military duty experience exposed me to both sides of the prevalent prejudice: my studies exposed me to the official position on the banned organizations (such as Madiba’s ANC), their history, their goals, etc., while I experienced firsthand, because of my specific deployment, the conditions so many black South Africans live in. And in later years my ministry has taken me across many boundaries—economic, ethnic, educational, etc. Thus, still today, I hear and see and experience multiple aspects of life in South Africa. In other words, I have many years to draw on when expressing my opinion on this matter . . . I have not been totally sheltered from the realities of life in South Africa, which is, ironically, possible.

Anybody who has spent even a small amount of time considering prejudice is aware that it dies hard; it is propagated, sadly, very effectively. Generations pass on prejudice even when trying to prevent it—our prejudices just sorta ooze out. This is one reason it is so vital to be transformed; our transformed selves will then ooze something else: whatever we’ve been transformed into.

Jesus taught on this. Some special people over the millennia have modeled it. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was one such person.

Since actions speak louder than words, Madiba’s demonstration of forgiveness and reconciliation has done much more than any person’s rhetoric to improve race relations. South Africa—the world, for that matter—has a long way to go to improve race relations. It will take the dedicated commitment of successive generations teaching their following generations—in words, but more importantly, through behaviour—to ‘play nice’ with people not like themselves. This is so much more possible in South Africa than in other countries, in my opinion, because of Madiba’s example.

Those years in prison could have been used to nurture his hatred and resentment and desire for revenge. Or, as actually occurred, Madiba could choose to apply the principles of God: mercy, forgiveness, reconciliation . . . This is one clear example of God not being a respecter of persons—when someone applies God’s principles, whether such a person is saved or not, the results will come. This is stated slightly differently elsewhere, in the ‘sowing-and-reaping’ concept. Even farmers who do not believe God is in control of His creation reap if they apply sound agricultural principles.

Nelson Mandela’s behavior applied, for instance, the godly principle of overcoming evil with good instead of paying back evil with evil (as per Rom. 12), in his demonstration of a generally conciliatory attitude.

More than in a single event, this principle seems well captured in Madiba’s spoken and applied perspective not to seek retribution. This was, in my opinion, one of the telling influences preventing wide-spread acts of revenge on the white population once President Mandela was released, and especially after the elections of 1994 and the formation of the new government. While such acts took place, they were strongly denounced. The denouncements found widespread acceptance, it seems, because of Madiba’s speeches and actions upholding reconciliation.

An example of this mindset–and the effect on the people–can be seen in how the movie “Invictus” portrayed Madiba putting together the security detail of the previous president and the men selected by the ANC to protect Madiba. This security group was a microcosm of the country: the new leader making the previous factions “play nice”. Apart from that aspect, Madiba was risking his life by bringing the previous enemy right to his side . . . he put his money where his mouth was by demonstrating forgiveness rather than firing that white security detail.

For President Mandela to have chosen to respond as he did has given people across the spectrum the example, the motivation, the courage, the permission, to behave in a way that improves race relations in spite of whatever the specifics of their background are. They don’t even have to be God-followers.

Now that Madiba has passed on, his legacy will be tested. If people continue to copy his example, many will benefit and his example will prove to have been powerfully influential. If his influence decreases with his passing, his example and legacy are not diminished. On the contrary: if in the absence of his remarkable example others fail to apply it, his response to his situation, which led to such a dramatic season of hope for race relations, will prove to be that much more remarkable, being so rare.

Review: Many Colors

Mike Price is the minister at the Bogalusa Church of Christ in Louisiana. He introduces himself further below. This is his first contribution to Cultural Mosaic. You can browse more of his writing on his personal blog, http://drmikeprice.com/.

Sometimes you really find a treasure.  They are the unexpected events that exceed your expectations.   Like taking a stroll on the beach and finding an old coin.  A real surprise!  On top of that you find out the coin is valuable!

Just over four years ago my wife Nancy and I decided to go back into the mission work.  It is a stateside mission work in Bogalusa, Louisiana.   It is truly different from the foreign mission work we experienced in Kowloon, China for 3 years, where my daughter was born and we worked only with Chinese.  Bogalusa is a multicultural/multiethnic mission work, consisting of 51% black, 47% white and 2% Hispanic.  An interesting side note is that the demographics of Bogalusa are an identical match with the church I work with.

As a result of this setting I have read and researched a lot of material on multicultural/multiethnic congregational life.  I am familiar with mixed communities, because in my first twelve years of schooling I attended 12 different schools.  Sometimes I attended as many as three different schools in one year and I lived in more than one mixed neighborhood.  Our first preaching job while supporting myself in school was with and all black congregation and was a great experience indeed!  In my preaching life most of the gospel meetings I have conducted have been for black congregations.  This has not happened out of any design, it has just worked out that way.   God has blessed me, and continues to do so, with a variety of experiences and challenges in life.

Even with my past and present experience I need to make sure as a missionary and minister, that I am able to promote and encourage a culture in the congregation that is not dominated by any one culture or ethnic group.  We need a balanced culture from God’s prospective that reflects the multicultural/multiethnic reality of our congregation.  This is easier said than done, but it is taking place and continuing to improve.

We are establishing a single congregational culture and practice that honors all groups represented.  This goal has provided my motivation to research and gain God’s perspective for his church in a changing multicultural/ multiethinic congregation. Our nation is fast becoming a multicultural/multiethinic society, moving in a direction where there will not be one dominate culture or ethnic group.

Peter Horne introduced me to a list of books on the subject and I asked Lawrence Rodgers who is working in multicultural congregation, which book he would like to see a book report on and he picked “Many Colors.”  To my surprise “Many Colors” by Dr. Soong-Chan Rah, was like finding a valuable coin while taking a stroll down the beach and being totally surprised.  It sums up so well and with clarity, what I have experienced and lived through. Rah also gives me more information to work with, which will allow me to become a better minister for Christ – increasing my cultural intelligence.   The book is written in a way that anyone who reads it can digest the information and intent of the book.

Soong-Chan Rah, points out that culture may operate on three levels which reinforces what and where we are culturally.

  1. Behaviors that are learned,
  2. Ideas that reinforce beliefs and values, and
  3. Products that reinforce beliefs.

He does and outstanding job of pointing out biblically God’s view of a multicultural and multiethnic reality that God wants for the church and how this is possible to achieve.  Since cultures are God’s intent, Rah points out they are, “not inherently evil, but rather are an expression by fallen humanity to live into the high calling of the Imago Dei (Imago Dei – Image of God)…Our goal in cultural intelligence therefore, is not to erase cultural differences, but rather to seek ways to honor the presence of God in different cultures. When we are dealing with cross-cultural and multicultural ministry, it is important to see God at work in all cultures, not just in one.”

I loved it when Dr. Rah quotes David Bosch in “Transforming Mission,”

“Mission is primarily and ultimately, the work of the Triune God, Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier, for the sake of the world, a ministry in which the church is privileged to participate.”

I hope you will take the time to read “Many Colors,” it will bless your life!  Whether you are in a multicultural/ multiethnic congregation or not, “Many Colors” will open up avenues of success in your own personal evangelism and capacity to reach out to a truly multicultural/multiethinic nation that we are becoming, increasing your cultural intelligence.

Eight Great Quotes from Eight Books

Lawrence W. Rodgers is a Christ-follower, husband, father, friend, servant, minister, and blog author. His blog is SeekingFirst.org, were he writes about practical theology, faith, family living, Christian living, and other relevant matters from a Biblical perspective. Lawrence is a full time minister, and is dedicated to seeking first the Kingdom of God in all areas of life. I appreciate him sharing this blog post with Cultural Mosaic readers.

No other task I have ever attempted to take on in my ministry has been as taxing as the task of encouraging homogenous congregations to grow into heterogeneous congregations.  No other cause I have ever endured has produced as much pain as encouraging multiethnic, multiracial, or multicultural diversity in congregations.  I have never had my efforts called into question more for any other endeavor as this one.  In my efforts, I was once asked the disparaging question if I had an agenda, I sternly replied “No!”  But, I have rethought my answer, and the answer is yes!  I do have an agenda, and that is the Jesus agenda, and within in it is the call to help the church to grow into the prayer Jesus prayed in John 17, or to help in Jesus decree for it to be on Earth as it is in Heaven.  Heaven, according to Revelation 5:9, will be the most diverse place any of us have ever experienced, and we should all work towards it being on Earth as it is in Heaven. 

This calling has not been an easy one.  However, it is a needed one.  In this article, I will share eight great quotes on congregational diversity from eight great books I have read.  These books have helped me to find encouragement along this road, and I hope they will encourage you as well. Maybe, these quotes can challenge others, and help use rethink congregational diversity, and the importance of it.

 Many Colors: Cultural Intelligence for a Changing Church

“The work of cross-cultural ministry is a difficult one. If the task of building a multiethnic church were an easy one, then every church in America could be experiencing the joys of successful multicultural ministry. Instead, most will recognize that planting, developing, and nurturing a multiethnic and multicultural church is extraordinarily hard work. In fact, if you are finding multicultural church ministry to be easy work, I would wonder if you are engaging in a multiethnic church but within a monocultural context. In other words, your congregants are adapting to one set of preferences, and they are not expressing the fullness of their own culture but instead acquiescing to the dominant culture. That type of church can be exciting and dynamic, but it would not require cultural intelligence. In fact, it would call for cultural oblivion.

The call to build a multiethnic, multicultural, racially reconciled church is an extremely high calling. There are numerous obstacles in society and in our human nature that could prevent us from living into God’s calling for our church. We must recognize, however, that this calling to be a diverse community that truly represents the kingdom of God requires great sacrifice. The deeply seated demonic power of racism cannot be overthrown without great cost.” [1]

Missiology: An Introduction to the Foundations, History, and Strategies of World Missions

“How can the concept of multiculturalism be applied to the church scene? Simply having persons from different ethnic, racial, or national groups does not necessarily make a multicultural church. This mixture of ethnic, racial, and national peoples might make up a multiracial church. The degree to which a church might be multicultural depends on the presence of certain clues or signs. These signs are not absolute but relative.

The signs might include leadership that represents the various ethnic/racial groups. Another visible sign would be the worship style. Does the worship style represent the methods and means of each of the groups within the congregation? The evidence of multiculturalism would be when the music, the preaching style, and the worship format might not be recognized as being easily connected to only one cultural expression.

The search for signs could go further by examining the leadership style and the church governance, both of which are culturally influenced. In a multicultural church, there would be appreciation and accommodation to the different styles of the cultures represented in the church’s membership.” [2]

The American Church in Crisis:Groundbreaking Research Based on a National Database of over 200,000 Churches

“The third key influence of multiethnicity is its challenge to power and privilege. In America these qualities have been the domain of Anglos. Jesus presented a countercultural view of these two traits when he challenged the Roman view of power and authority with the model of servanthood. Unfortunately, American Christians have often allowed the world to determine their view of power and privilege, rather than Scripture. This has created an Anglo Christianity that is increasingly affluent, suburban, and educated, yet functionally disconnected from non-Anglo populations. A multiethnic church will bring to American Christianity a new awareness of these issues from a biblical perspective so that the new people of God, the church, may truly reflect the diversity and equality inherent in the gospel.” [3]

Race and Reconciliation: Healing the Wounds, Winning the Harvest

“Jesus exhorts us to count the cost before we begin any endeavor (Luke 14:28). There is a definite cost to the development of multiethnic ministry. A large number of people who simply could not adjust to the changes in our congregation left the church. Some of those brothers and sisters were very close to my wife and me. I remember the Sunday that one of our church council members came to me asking, “Just who are we trying to get into this church anyway?”

I responded, “People who are hungry and who know they need the Lord.”

On the other hand, some of our black brethren have suffered criticism and racial slurs from their own people because they have chosen to attend a church pastored by a white man. We must realize that deep prejudices have been ingrained in people from childhood. Once we have a clear perception of this matter, we are enabled to respond in love, instead of reacting in anger.” [4]

Multicultural Ministry: Finding Your Church’s Unique Rhythm 

“For the disciples to obey the Great Commission, they had to face the inevitability of cross-cultural, multiethnic ministry. At the very start of the first-century church, Peter and the other apostles confronted racial and ethnic challenges head on. Remember the story of the first deacons? The Hellenistic, Greek-speaking Jews were murmuring that their poor widows were not receiving fair distribution from the wealthy. The Aramaic-speaking Jews, like the apostles themselves, had neglected this minority group. The apostles addressed the problem by appointing Greek-speaking deacons to serve the widows. The first church practiced the dance of cross-cultural ministry and multiethnic evangelism from the outset, because of the Great Multiethnic Commission.” [5]

The Lamb’s Agenda: Why Jesus Is Calling You to a Life of Righteousness and Justice

“THIS NEXT GREAT VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL righteousness and justice movement will not be a white, black, or brown movement, but rather a kingdom culture, multiethnic movement.

Notice how I did not say multicultural but multiethnic. The “culture” we all share—or can share—is God’s kingdom culture. We can share in it whether we are black, white, or brown, or whether we are Americans, Egyptians, or Greeks.” [6]

Erasing Hell: What God Said About Eternity, and the Things We’ve Made Up 

“Why is it that only 5.5 percent of American evangelical churches could be considered multiethnic (where no single ethnicity makes up more than 80 percent of its congregants)?1 Why is that? Five and a half percent! And we’re supposed to be living in the melting pot, the place where hundreds of languages and colors often live within a few miles—or feet—of each other. What’s so sad about this is that many people outside the church are far less racially divided. Consider the military, our places of work, or athletics. Yet there are three places where racial division still persists: bars, prisons, and the American evangelical church.

We need to see the glaring contradiction in saying we believe in hell while making no effort to tear down the walls of racism and ethnic superiority. If we’re going to take Jesus’ words seriously, we have to make a more concerted effort to forge avenues of racial reconciliation and unity under the banner of the gospel of Christ. One day, Christ will come back and there will be an amazing worship celebration—with African bongos, Indian sitars, and an ensemble of Mariachi trumpets—where every tribe, tongue, nation, and color will bow the knee to their King and celebrate! If this sounds irritating, then go back and read Matthew 8. It’s written for you.” [7]

Gospel-centered Discipleship

“Interestingly, when the church embraces the second conversion to community, very often the third conversion to mission follows. A Jesus-centered community is an attractive community—a community that encourages, forgives, serves, loves, and invites non-Christians into its community. The gospel reconciles people to God and to one another, creating a single new community comprised of an array of cultures and languages to make one new humanity (Col. 2:15). This new humanity reconciles its differences (Col. 2:14–16) in the commonality of the gospel. It is both local and global. As the body grows, a redeemed, multiethnic, intergenerational, economically and culturally diverse humanity emerges. When we act as the church toward one another, we display the gracious, redemptive reign of Jesus to the world. As Jesus’s redemptive reign breaks into this world, the church grows into the full stature of Christ.” [8]
Thanks for Reading!
~Lawrence W. Rodgers


[1] Soong-Chan Rah, Many Colors: Cultural Intelligence for a Changing Church (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2010).

[2] John Mark Terry, Ebbie C. Smith, and Justice Anderson, Missiology: An Introduction to the Foundations, History, and Strategies of World Missions (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 578.

[3] David T. Olson, The American Church in Crisis: Groundbreaking Research Based on a National Database of over 200,000 Churches (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009).

[4] Jack W. Hayford, Greg Howse, and Michael Posey, Race and Reconciliation: Healing the Wounds, Winning the Harvest, Spirit-FilledLifeKingdom Dynamics Study Guides (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1996).

[5] David A. Anderson, Multicultural Ministry: Finding Your Church’s Unique Rhythm (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2009).

[6] Samuel Rodriguez, The Lamb’s Agenda: Why Jesus Is Calling You to a Life of Righteousness and Justice (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2013).

[7] Francis Chan and Preston Sprinkle, Erasing Hell: What God Said About Eternity, and the Things We’ve Made Up (Colorado Springs, CO: David C Cook, 2011).

[8] Jonathan K. Dodson, Gospel-centered Discipleship (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012).